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Manual page of wfind, a web search spider


wfind - find and grep for the web


wfind URLs... [--] [options] tests

scav script URLs... [--] other arguments


wfind is a generic web search spider. In a syntax similar to the UNIX find (1) command, it allows you to search internet documents, recursively following hyperlinks. Given the appropriate Perl modules or/and external programs, it can process HTML, plain text, PDF, PostScript, RTF, troff and MS Office formats. wfind can also search local directories in a similar way as find ... -exec grep ... would.

wfind's applications include postprocessing search engine results (especially of search-it-yourself site searches), checking web pages against dead links, and full text search of manual pages or other documentation. It supports regular expressions, phonetic search, logical operators and proximity search.

scav is a symlink to the wfind script that enables a different, very experimental interface. Its first argument is a script that allows finer control over where the spider goes and the implementation of more complex tasks than the wfind command line. See "SCAV" at the bottom of this manual page for more information.


The first argument(s) of wfind are the URLs to start from. These can be file://, http(s):// or ftp(s):// URLs or relative or absolute paths. The paths accepted have some restrictions to avoid ambiguities with test expressions (see below). Absolute paths on UNIX systems should best start with // for that reason, and relative paths must start with ./ .

More than one URL can be given in a single argument by using ranges and sequences, as in shell glob patterns and in the arguments of curl(1). A range consists of two endpoints (numerical or string of letters) separated by a hyphen, enclosed in square brackets. A set of URLs is formed by substituting each number or string in the range. An optional increment can be given by a colon followed by a number before the closing bracket. A sequence is a comma-separated list of strings in curly braces, each of which will be substituted to form a URL.

The pseudo-scheme search: causes wfind to query a search engine with search terms derived from its search expression. These URLs are of the form search:engine, where the available engines are listed (among other things) by the -status option. Only word / glob tests (see below) can be used to generate search terms from, and only if they are at the top level of the search expression.

The pseudo-URL - (a single hyphen) enables wfind to read URLs from standard input, which allows generating them with a different program.

The marker -- (two hyphens) can be used to separate URLs from test expressions and options. It must occur only once on the command line and forces arguments to its left to be interpreted as URLs and those to its right as tests or options.


wfind supports several ways to specify what words, phrases or expressions to search for. The most important difference is between those which are word-oriented and those which are not. The former are intended for searching for phrases in human-readable text. Their search patterns are split into words of letters and digits, and all non-word characters serve as word separators and are silently discarded. (This tolerance makes it easier to copy and paste search phrases.) Characters with accents and diaereses are converted to their base characters before comparison, both in the pattern and in the text. This is similar to the behaviour of web search engines. Non-word-oriented tests are performed on the "raw" text, which may still have sequences of spaces converted to single spaces and characters and punctuation converted to their ASCII equivalent (see "Regular expressions" and "Unicode" below for details).

Search expressions are specified by a punctuation character indicating the type of match, the phrase to be searched for, and optionally the same indicator character followed by flags. The following search expressions are supported:

Words and glob patterns

The simplest match type are glob patterns. Their indicator character is an equals sign and is optional if no flags are given. The wildcard characters ? and * can be used to denote a single word character and an arbitrary number of them, respectively. (Remember tho prepend them with a backslash or to enclose them in single quotes to prevent the shell from interpreting them.) Character ranges or multiple subpatterns enclosed in braces are not allowed by wfind. If the pattern contains no wildcard characters, it is just a search for a string of words, which can be given without any markup in one command-line argument to wfind. Two examples:

    "these three words"


In the first example, double quotes were used to tell the shell to pass all three words as one command-line argument. wfind does not get to see the quotes. The second example searches for all capitalised words starting with "Wor". Glob pattern searches are case insensitive by default, but the I flag makes them case sensitive.

The other supported flag is v, the verbatim flag. It turns the word search into a tolerant substring search which is not word-oriented. The "tolerance" of the search consists in that spaces are allowed before and after all non-word characters, and that unicode characters compare as equal to their base character (unlike in verbatim regular expressions, see below). Wildcard characters still stand for word (letter or digit) characters only.

Regular expressions

Regular expressions are a mainstay of several UNIX utilities and of Perl, so it is no surprise that wfind supports them too. Their indicator character is a slash /, and the required syntax is that of Perl regular expressions. The given regex is used largely unmodified, so unfiltered input from untrusted sources should not be passed to wfind as a regex.

wfind takes regexes to be case insensitive by default. The flag I given after the concluding slash makes them case sensitive. Regex searches are never word oriented, so will be applied to the complete text of a web page, not to individual words. In particular, punctuation will be kept and can be matched. Unless the v (verbatim) flag is given, some simplifications will still be made before the regex match: accented and similarly modified characters are converted to their base character, and exotic punctuation converted to the ASCII equivalent (see "Unicode" below for details). So the first of the following regexes will match the German name of the city of Munich, but the second will not match the phrase "cause celebre" in french texts:


    "/\bcause celebre\b/v"

wfind will always add the s flag to the Perl regular expression it uses so that newline characters are treated as any kind of white space. The characters ^ and $ denoting the beginning and end of the string should not be used in the regex, because the document may be matched part by part (see "How wfind processes documents" below). The regex may contain additional slashes between the two delimiters, which are matched and should not be escaped.

Levenshtein similarity

The Levenshtein distance between two words is the number of one-character modifications, additions or removals it takes to convert one into the other. wfind supports approximate searches for words within a given Levenshtein distance. The indicator character is a tilde ~, and the concluding tilde can be followed by a specification of the maximum tolerated distance. This can either be a number (the distance itself) or a percentage. The latter will be interpreted as the ratio of the tolerated distance relative to the maximum possible distance, which is the maximum of the lengths of the two words being compared. If no maximum distance is given, a relative distance of 20% is used. Some examples:


    '~can wizards spell~30%'

The first search just matches the correctly spelt "Levenshtein". (Insertion of the h, removal of the last e, insertion of the last e.) The second example searches for a sequence of three words. The 30% threshold is applied to each word comparison individually.

Like the other searches, Levenshtein equivalence is case insensitive by default. To switch on case sensitivity, the I flag has to be added before or after the distance specification.

Phonetic equivalence

Several schemes exist to encode words according to their pronunciation by English-speakers. wfind can use Double Metaphone, Metaphone or Soundex and loads the corresponding Perl module when available. When wfind finds search words prepended with a dollar sign $, it converts them to their phonetic codes and searches for sequences of words which have the same codes. Some words have no phonetic code (wfind aborts with an error when told to search for such a word), and many different words have the same code. The single characters ? and * can be used as wildcards which match any word. The search for phonetically-equivalent words takes no flags, so the dollar sign need not be repeated after the word(s) (but may be). Remember to escape the dollar sign from the shell, as demonstrated in these examples:


    '$three * mice$'


Several search expressions next to each other are combined with the logical conjunction (AND) by default. To specify a different logical function, you can use the following operators, which are compatible with the find(1) command. They are listed in decreasing order of precedence.

( )

Parentheses force precedence. Remember to escape these from the shell.

!, -not

Logical negation.

-a, -and

Logical conjunction. This is the default if two tests are found side by side without an explicit operator.

-o, -or

Logical disjunction.

In addition to the operators above, the option -require allows defining generalised logical operators. It is described in the "Subexpression options" section below.


There are situations where you might want to use wfind in several stages. For instance, you may first want to sift through a list of URLs based on one set of keywords and then search through links from the hits using different criteria. Or you may want to search through external links from local documentation pages which themselves match some criteria. wfind's pipe sections provide the means to do that.

Pipe sections are notionally similar to pipes of commands on your shell command-line. Just as the shell feeds the output of one command into the input of the following command in a pipe, wfind uses the hits of the tests of one pipe section as the starting URLs of the following one. Successive pipe sections are separated by the pipie character, which has to be escaped from the shell:

wfind URLs test1 \| test2 \| test3

This would be the syntax for three pipe sections. See "Advanced usage" below for examples.

Not only can different pipe sections have different search criteria, they can also differ in some options. By default, options given for the first pipe section will be reused in the following section(s), but explicitly given options for that section will override them, and will stay active for the following sections. Not all options are scoped by pipe section. Those that are mostly concern wfind's behaviour for recursively following links, see "Pipe section options" below.


wfind's options (comand-line switches) determine the details of its behaviour. Test options prepended to test expressions cause the tests to be applied to something other than a document's contents. Other options influence the following of hyperlinks, reporting of results and other things.

Options may be uniquely abbreviated. Boolean-valued options take no arguments; they are set to true by the presence of their command-line switch, and to false by prepending the option name with "no". They default to false unless documented otherwise below.

Test options are part of the boolean expression which determines if a document will be reported as a result. Other options set parameters whose scope may be global, the current pipe section, or the subexpression in which they are given. Options scoped by pipe section serve as the default for the following pipe sections too, so they need not be repeated, but may have to be reset explicitly.

Alphabetical summary

The following table gives a brief description of all command-line switches in alphabetical order. The character in the second column gives the type of the option: O for operators, T for test options, G for global options, P for pipe section options and L for locally scoped options (subexpression options). Operators are described in the "Operators" section above; a detailed description for the other options can be found in the corresponding section below.

 --             G   End of URL arguments (must not occur later)
 -and, -a       O   And operator
 -asplain       P   Parse all ASCII files as plain text
 -charnear      L   Proximity requirement in characters
 -decompress    G   Store decompressed result documents in current directory
 -depth         P   Recursion depth
 -download      G   Store result documents in current directory
 -downxform     G   Transform URL to save file name
 -echo          G   Echo arguments and exit
 -exif          T   Test EXIF metainformation in image or audio files
 -false         T   Always false
 -follow        P   HTML tags containing links to follow
 -gdepth        G   Global recursion depth
 -header        T   Test HTML, PDF or OLE document header
 -holdoff       G   Holdoff time between downloads
 -httpdirs      P   Try to heuristically identify HTTP directory listings
 -httpheader    T   Test HTTP header
 -inlineframes  P   Treat frames as part of the document in which they appear
 -linkafter     P   Follow only hyperlinks after a test matches
 -linkbefore    P   Follow only hyperlinks before a test matches
 -linksto       T   Test hyperlink URLs
 -linktags      P   HTML tags relevant for -linksto
 -linktext      P   Follow only hyperlinks with the given link text
 -localfile     T   Test existence of local file name created from URL
 -max           P   Maximal number of results
 -maxsize       G   Maximal download size
 -modified      T   Test Last-Modified time
 -name          T   Test document name
 -nostart       P   Disqualify start URLs
 -not           O   Negation operator
 -or, -o        O   Or operator
 -pessimistic   P   Discard ambiguous results
 -plainurls     P   Extract non-hyperlinked URLs
 -print         G   What to output
 -redirects     G   Maximum number of HTTP redirects
 -require       L   Generalised logical operator
 -rsize         T   Test file size after download
 -rtype         T   Test MIME type after download
 -samedomain    P   Follow hyperlinks to same domain only
 -silent        G   No warnings
 -size          T   Test file size as reported by server
 -status        G   Print capabilities and exit
 -symlinks      P   Follow symbolic links in filesystem
 -slaves        G   Number of slave processes to spawn
 -timeout       G   Connection timeout
 -transform     P   Transform result URLs
 -true          T   Always true
 -type          T   Test MIME type given by server
 -uagent        G   User agent string
 -unrestricted  P   Follow hyperlinks from files to WWW
 -url           T   Test document URL
 -urlgroup      T   Test document URL against URL group
 -userholdoff   G   Apply holdoff time to user input URLs
 -verbose       G   More detailed output
 -version       G   Print wfind version
 -while         P   Follow hyperlinks while expression is true
 -wordnear      L   Proximity requirement in words

Test options

When wfind encounters a search expression on its own, it searches for it in a document's content. To search for documents with a certain URL, size or headers, you can use the following options. Many of them are followed by parameters detailing what to search for in the data they indicate. For those that take search expressions as parameters, only primitive expressions are allowed, that is without operators. The test options can be combined with content tests and each other using operators (see "Operators" above).

-exif keyexpression:valueexpression

True if a file with embedded EXIF metadata has an EXIF tag matching keyexpression with a value matching valueexpression. Typically image files from digital cameras and sometimes audio files have embedded EXIF data, but this test is not useful for text document formats. For files without EXIF data, or if no tag matches keyexpression, the result is undecided, and the value of the complete test expression may depend on -pessimistic. If multiple tags match keyexpression, one matching value is enough to make the result true (OR semantics).


Always false.

-header keyexpression:valueexpression

True if a document header with a key matching keyexpression has a value matching valueexpression. This test applies only to HTML, PDF and MS OLE documents. For other documents, or if no key matches keyexpression, the result is undecided, and the value of the complete test expression may depend on whether -pessimistic is given. If several headers have matching keys, one matching value is enough to make this test true (OR semantics).

-httpheader keyexpression:valueexpression

True if a HTTP header received from the server has a key matching keyexpression and a value matching valueexpression. wfind will usually try to decide this test using a HEAD request which only retrieves the HTTP headers, and put off downloading the document. If no header key matches keyexpression, the result is undecided, and the value of the complete test expression may depend on whether -pessimistic is given. If several headers have matching keys, one matching value is enough to make this test true (OR semantics).

-linksto expression

True if one of the hyperlinks extracted from the document matches expression. Also applies to URLs in the text if -plainurls is given.

-localfile Perlcode

True if a local file with the name constructed by the Perlcode from the URL exists. The current URL is passed in the $_ variable, and some other variables are also available. The Perl features the code fragment can use are restricted. See -transform below for details. The file name to stat is returned in $_. If $_ is the empty string or undefined, the file is assumed not to exist, forcing the test result to be false. To force a true result, return "/", as the root directory always exists. This option allows to download serialised resources such as blog articles until a page that has already been downloaded is encountered.

-modified [+|-]time

Compare modification time from the "Last-Modified" field of the HTTP header. The result is true for an older document if + is given, for a newer document if - is given, or a document of the specified modification date otherwise. time may be given as a plain number followed by m or d or as a time and date. The former is interpreted as the age of the document in minutes or days; the suffix d is optional. If a date is given, it is parsed using Date::Parse::str2time; see Date::Parse for the allowed syntax.

wfind will usually try to decide this test using a HEAD request which only retrieves the HTTP headers, and put off downloading the document. Sadly, most servers simply return the current time and date as the "Last-Modified" time. wfind detects this, and marks the test as undecided. The result of the complete test expression may then depend on whether -pessimistic is given. All comparisons of the last-modified time are performed with a tolerance of 3 minutes in either direction to allow for variations of the clocks of different computers on the web. For local files, the comparison is exact.

-name expression

Apply test expression to document name (file name or last part of the URL). This test does not require downloading the document.

-rsize [+|-]number[k|M|G]

Compare size of downloaded file. The size is determined after decompression. If the given number of bytes is prepended by +, the result is true for files at least as large, in the case of - for files at most as large, otherwise the size has to match exactly. The suffixes k, M or G (case insensitive) allow abbreviating kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. (That's informatics kilobytes etc., which are powers of 2, not marketing kilobytes etc.)

-rtype expression

Apply test expression to the MIME type of the document. The MIME type is determined using the File::MimeInfo::Magic module or the file command and is therefore consistent across servers.

-size [+|-]number[k|M|G]

Compare size of remote file as given by the Content-Length HTTP header with given number in bytes. If prepended by +, the result is true for files at least as large, in the case of - for files at most as large, otherwise the size has to match exactly. The suffixes k, M or G (case insensitive) allow abbreviating kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. (That's informatics kilobytes etc., which are powers of 2, not marketing kilobytes etc.) wfind will usually try to decide this test using a HEAD request which only retrieves the HTTP headers, and put off downloading the document.


Always true.

-type expression

Apply test expression to the MIME type of the document as given by the Content-Type HTTP header. wfind will usually try to decide this test using a HEAD request which only retrieves the HTTP headers, and put off downloading the document. Unfortunately different servers can have different opinions on the MIME type of a given document format. The MIME type should usually allow for compression (ie give the uncompressed MIME type), but only does that if the server can discern the enclosed format. The similar -rtype test downloads the document to determine the MIME type on the local host, which provides consistency across servers.

-url expression

Apply test expression to document URL. This test does not require downloading the document.

-urlgroup name

Test if the document URL is part of the URL group name (see "THE CONFIGURATION DIRECTORY" below). This test does not require downloading the document.

Two more options exist which are related to tests: -linktext and -while. Both have tests as their arguments which determine which links are followed. They may occur only once in every pipe section and are listed among the "Pipe section options" below.

Global options


This is not really an option. It serves as a separator between URL arguments and test / option arguments in cases when they could be confused. It may occur only before all other tests and options.


Store those documents which match the criteria to the current directory, after decompression or other decoding. This option is enabled by default. If it is given explicitly, it implies -download, for backwards compatibility.


Store those documents which match the criteria to the current directory. If -decompress is enabled (the default), documents are decompressed before storing them. Otherwise they are stored exactly as they were received from the server. The output file name is the same as the file name part of the URL. If it already exists, a number is appended before the file extension. There may be a race condition if two instances of wfind run in the same directory and simultaneously try to store a file with the same name, in which case one may overwrite the other.

-downxform Perlcode

Expression transforming the result URLs into a file name to save the downloaded document to. This implies -download. The Perlcode should operate on $_. If the resulting $_ is the empty string or undefined or an error occurs, wfind will construct a file name based on the URL as usual. For other variables available to the code fragment and restrictions on Perl features, see -transform below.


Perform no search, just print the start URLs, options and search expressions. Both the options specified on the command line and the default options are printed. Useful to check wfind's interpretation of your command line.

If the -verbose option is also given, both every URL argument and all its corresponding canonicalised URLs are printed. (There is only one unless the argument contained a glob pattern.) Without -verbose, at most the first three URLs are printed for a glob pattern, and only the canonicalised form is printed for single URLs. The URL arguments are always printed in the order in which they were given on the command line.

-gdepth number

Global maximum search depth. The search depth is 0 for every URL given on the command line and is increased by one for every hyperlink followed or (for directory searches) every directory hierarchy. The search is continued until either the maximum depth of this pipe section (see -depth) or the global maximum depth have been exceeded. wfind's depth counting differs from that of the find(1) command in that it regards files as at the same depth as the directory where they are located. So a maximum depth of 0 for a directory search may return files from the directory given on the command line.

-holdoff [+|-]seconds

Set the delay between successive retrievals from the same server. The sign determines how the delay applies to HTTP and FTP retrievals. For +, the delay is imposed between any successive retrievals from the same server. Otherwise, it applies for each protocol separately, i.e. one HTTP and one FTP retrieval may be in progress simultaneously. The - sign allows the delay for HTTP to be overridden by the Crawl-Delay entry of the robots.txt file of the server if present. The default holdoff is "-10", 10 seconds with separate accounting and override allowed.

The holdoff time is normally applied only to recursively visited HTTP resources on the same server. It is not applied to multiple URLs on the same server given on the command line (unless -userholdoff is active), to HTTP HEAD requests or to retrievals of robots.txt.

-maxsize number[k|M|G]

Set the maximum size of retrievals, in bytes. A useful safeguard to avoid wasting bandwith and processing time if links to source archives or other large data abound in the vicinity of your search, and/or if a server has flaky MIME type reporting. The suffixes k, M or G (case insensitive) allow abbreviating kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. (That's informatics kilobytes etc., which are powers of 2, not marketing kilobytes etc.) Unlike -size, this does not disqualify a larger document. The given number of bytes will still be retrieved, and all tests performed as usual. The default is no limit.

Determine what should be printed out for each result of the last pipe section. The argument is a list of keywords separated by commas and/or spaces. If spaces are used, the list has to be quoted so that it remains a single command-line argument. The following keywords are allowed, and will be printed in the following order:

    all     all of the below
    url     URL (including C<file://> for local files)
    furl    file name or URL (this is the default)
    type    MIME type
    size    size of the document
    time    modification time
    trace   chain of of hyperlinked URLs which led to the result
    linkprops  indices and linktexts of hyperlinks leading to the result

The type and size output data may come from different sources depending on whether the document in question had to be retrieved. wfind will perform a HEAD request if necessary to obtain the size or MIME type from the HTTP headers but will not retrieve the document just for printing the size or type. If the document was retrieved to perform content tests, on the other hand, the actual size will be reported, and the MIME type will be determined by wfind if the File::MimeInfo::Magic module or the file program are available. For the output format of these fields, seee below under "Result reporting".

-redirects number

Set the maximum number of redirects for the Perl WWW library to follow. If not given, the default is left unchanged (probably 7; see LWP::UserAgent for your version's default).


Suppress all warnings. Because wfind performs only one pass over its command-line arguments, this option will not affect warnings related to arguments which precede it.


Number of slave processes to use for downloading and testing documents. Using several slaves makes wfind robust against being stalled by slow servers. Creating the slave processes and communicating with them requires some low-level Perl functions inspired by UNIX systems and may therefore cause portability trouble. If you experience unexpected behaviour, try setting -slaves to 0, so that wfind works sequentially and does not fork.


Print which document formats and tests wfind can support with the Perl modules and external programs installed on your system. With -verbose, indicates which modules or programs are used to process which formats and suggests what you can install to enable additional features. If other options or URLs are given, they are ignored. wfind tries to find modules and external programs on each run and therefore can use them as they become available. See "Perl modules and external programs" below for details.

-timeout seconds

Set the timeout for the Perl WWW library. If not given, the default is left unchanged (possibly 180 seconds; see LWP::UserAgent for your version's default).


Set user agent string. This is how wfind identifies itself to the server at every HTTP request.


Also apply holdoff time to URLs that came from user input, on the command line or as scavenger start URLs. Normally the holdoff is ignored for such URLs.


Enables verbose error reporting, such as messages when a document could not be retrieved or parsed. Overrides -silent if that option is also given, irrespective of the order. Also makes the output of -echo or -status more detailed; see there.


Print wfind version and exit.

Pipe section options

These options are scoped by pipe section. They are mostly about how to parse documents and which links to follow. Options of one pipe section continue to apply to the following sections unless they are explicitly reset.


Treat non-binary documents as plain text when searching the content. This allows for instance to search HTML documents for the occurrence specific tags, such as img. The extraction of link URLs is unaffected by this switch, so wfind will still recognise and follow HTML hyperlinks. See -plainurls for how to follow plain-text URLs.

-depth number

Maximum search depth for this pipe section. The search depth is 0 for every URL given on the command line or resulting from the previous pipe section and is increased by one for every hyperlink followed or (for directory searches) every directory hierarchy. The search is continued until either the maximum depth of this pipe section or the global maximum depth (see -gdepth) have been exceeded. wfind's depth counting differs from that of the find(1) command in that it regards files as at the same depth as the directory where they are located. So a maximum depth of 0 for a directory search may return files from the directory given on the command line.

-follow [+|-]list

Tag attributes to use for following hyperlinks from HTML documents. The argument is a list of tag-attribute pairs of the form tag.attribute separated by commas and/or spaces. (If you use spaces, put the list in quotes; it must be contained in one command-line argument.) The list of allowed tags and attributes is generated at runtime using the HTML::Tagset module. You can view the default setting and a list of allowed attributes with the following commands, respectively:

    wfind -echo
    wfind -echo -follow all

If only one attribute of a tag can contain a URL, it is sufficient to give the tag name, without a dot and attribute name. In addition to the explicit tag/attribute pairs, the keyword all is allowed to select all of them, as demonstrated above. If the list is prepended with a plus sign, the given tag/attribute pairs are added to the list, with a minus sign they are removed, and otherwise the list is set to exactly the given tags/attributes.

If the -inlineframes option is active (as it is by default), some link tags are treated as part of the document rather than as external links. If you want to extract all links from a document, you might want to disable that option.


Employ a heuristic to tell if a HTML page retrieved by HTTP is a directory listing. Basically, all <a href=...> and <link href=...> hyperlinks are compared to the concatenation of the base URL with their respective link text. If only a small number (currently 1) of them link somewhere else, excepting links to the same page or the parent directory, the page is taken for a directory listing. This option is enabled by default, but can be disabled by -nohttpdirs in case HTML pages are mistakenly considered directories.


Treat link URLs from the HTML tags (attributes) frame (src), iframe (src), layer (src), ilayer (src) and meta (content) as part of the current document. The search depth is unaffected by these links, and they are retrieved without a holdoff delay. These link URLs are considered start URLs if the original document was, and are not considered links of that document because they are already handled internally. If the list of link tags specified with -follow does not include some of the tags above, they are ignored even if this option is active. This option is active by default.

-linkafter ...

Follow hyperlinks only after text in the document matches a search expression. Only a content test is allowed as the argument; a more complex test expression must be enclosed in parentheses. If -linkbefore is also present, hyperlinks between successive matches of the -linkafter expression and the -linkbefore expression are valid.

-linkbefore ...

Follow hyperlinks only after text in the document matches a search expression. Only a content test is allowed as the argument; a more complex test expression must be enclosed in parentheses. If -linkafter is also present, hyperlinks between successive matches of the -linkafter expression and the -linkbefore expression are valid.

-linktags [+|-]list

Tag attributes to take into account for -linksto tests. The argument format is exactly the same as for -follow above.

-linktext ...

Follow only links whose text matches a search expression. The following test expression may not contain test options (see "Test options"), only content tests and operators. If multiple tests are given, they have to be enclosed in parentheses, or only the first will be assigned to -linktext. See also -while, which allows more freedom but has slightly different semantics.

-max n

Maximum number of results to obtain for this pipe section. Note that due to varying server reply times, the actual results obtained may not be deterministic.


Do not consider start URLs of the current section as candidates for search results, only follow their links. The start URLs of the first pipe section are those given on the command line; the start URLs of the other pipe sections are the result URLs of the previous section. The negative of -nostart is -nonostart.


Be pessimistic about test result. By default, wfind will give URLs the benefit of doubt if the result of a test cannot be decided. For instance, the user may search for web pages which have been modified recently, or which have certain values for a given HTML header. But many servers return bogus Last-Modified dates, and not all web pages may have the required HTML header. wfind includes the URL in the result list if the test cannot be decided for such reasons. Note that it is not the value of the individual -modified or -header test which will be true by default, but that of the complete test expression. So for instance it does not matter whether an undecidable test is negated; and if its value is irrelevant due to the values of other tests, the result is unchanged.

-pessimistic changes that default. If the test result for an URL is undecided, it will now be discarded. The switch also applies to -while tests, when wfind decides whether to continue following links.


Follow non-hyperlink URLs. Normally, wfind will follow hyperlinks in HTML, PDF and MS OLE documents. This switch causes any URL appearing in the document to be treated as a link. Among others, this allows following links from plain text and other document formats which do not have hyperlinks. -linktext tests are ignored for these links, they are always followed. To avoid misidentifying URLs, only links with the protocols which wfind parses (http(s) and ftp(s)) are recognised; this may affect -linksto tests, for which an URL from a hyperlink can have any protocol. (Workaround: use an additional content test.)


Follow hyperlinks only within a domain. Subdomains are treated as equal, so links from en.wikipedia.org to de.wikipedia.org will be followed, for instance. This option defaults to true in the first pipe section, unless most of the given start URLs refer to the site of a well-known search engine, when it defaults to false. See -while and the -url test for more fine-grained control over which links are followed.

Follow symbolic links when searching local directories. This affects both links to directories (which are followed recursively) and links to files (which are considered as potential results). Symlinks to directories are treated as though their targets were located in the directory of the symlink and carry no "cost" in terms of search depth. Chains of symlinks are followed, loops are ignored gracefully. Symbolic link start URLs are always dereferenced, regardless of this option.

-transform Perlcode

Transform the result URLs before use in the following pipe section or output. The Perlcode should operate on $_. If $_ is the empty string or undefined after evaluating the expression, the URL is removed from the list of results. The functions that the Perl code fragment can use are slightly retricted to prevent it messing up wfind. wfind's variables are also not visible to it. However, the functions uri_unescape, uri_escape and uri_escape_utf8 from the URI::Escape module and uri_split and uri_join from URI::Split are available.

Some pertinent variables are also made available. The array @trace contains the URLs via which the current one was reached, with the start URL last. The array @linkprops contains corresponding hashes for the hyperlinks followed, which have the entries index, indices (an array reference), linktext and linktexts (array). The arrays are provided in case more than one link pointed to the same URL. If a URL was modified with the -transform option, the original URL is also contained in the @trace, and the linktext entry contains the transformation expression (the indices array is empty; index is -1). Last, the $contentname scalar contains the filename given in the Content-Disposition header if present.

Be aware that like all pipe section options, -transform will be inherited by following pipe sections, which in this case is probably not what you want. Passing -transform with an empty string as an argument disables URL transformations.

Because the transformation is performed only after a URL is tested, lists of transformed URLs may contain duplicates if different URLs are transformed to the same one. Currently a URL transformation does not trigger a renewed retrieval, so -transform in the last pipe section together with -download will not download anything. An additional pipe section can be used to remove duplicates and download the transformed URL, see "Advanced usage" below.


Follow links from local files to the internet. Files found in a local directory search will still not have their links extracted; use an additional pipe section to achieve that (see "PIPE SECTIONS" above and "EXAMPLES" below).

-while ...

Stop following links when the associated test becomes false. The document in question may still be reported as a result, i.e. the semantics is that of a do ... while loop. If multiple tests are given, they have to be enclosed in parentheses, or only the first will be assigned to -while. See also -linktext.

Subexpression options

The few options scoped by subexpression deal with proximity search requirements and a generalisation of the simpler -and and -or operators. You have to be a little careful where to put them: If you do not put explicit parentheses around every subexpression, -wfind will assign the option to the subexpression to which the test or operator to its left belongs.

-charnear distance

Proximity requirement for the current (sub)expression, in characters. The distance gives the maximum distance between the first and last character which are part of phrases matching a sub-test. Be aware that a character proximity requirement may be hard to fulfil if you have greedy wildcards in a regular expression. You should probably use the non-greedy version instead (see the perlre) manual page). A subexpression cannot have a more permissive proximity requirement than its superexpression. wfind will adjust the subexpression's proximity requirement automatically if that happens, and output a warning. If both -charnear and -wordnear are given in the same subexpression, both requirements have to be met.

-require number

This option allows to define a more general logical function than the standard -and and -or. It requires at least the given number of subexpressions to be true for the current expression to give a true result. The -and or -or operators in the current expression are ignored and are therefore best omitted. Operator subexpressions must be enclosed in parentheses.

-wordnear distance

Proximity requirement for the current (sub)expression, in words. The distance gives the maximum distance between the first and last word contributing to true-valued subexpressions. A distance of 0 means all have to be the same word, which allows requiring a word to pass more than one test. A subexpression cannot have a more permissive proximity requirement than its superexpression. wfind will adjust the subexpression's proximity requirement automatically if that happens, and output a warning. If both -charnear and -wordnear are given in the same subexpression, both requirements have to be met.


Result reporting

By default, wfind prints the file names or URLs of the documents matching the required criteria. Results are printed as tests are completed, so the first results are available as soon as possible. Results are not sorted, neither alphabetically nor in the order in which hyperlinks were encountered, and the order is not deterministic.

With the -print option, you can specify additional information to be printed. Except for the trace, the fields are printed as columns in the order in which they are documented above. The trace consists of the URLs which led from the start URL to the result and is printed indented in reverse chronological order below the result URL. If no trace is available (for instance when the start URL was a result), a remark to that effect is printed. Traversal of local or FTP directories does not contribute to the trace.

Besides the results (which are printed to standard output), the number and weight of documents that wfind could not test are printed to standard error, if applicable. This comprises documents which could not be retrieved, were forbidden to robots or blacklisted, the numbers of which are printed separately. The first category includes retrieval errors, decoding or decompression errors, unsupported file formats and dead symbolic links on local file systems.

The weight of a document is the weight of its parent multiplied with its share among its siblings, which are documents hyperlinked from the same previous document or fellow start documents. This notion is based on the idea of a regular tree of hyperlinked documents. Though real-life hyperlinks rarely form trees, let alone regular ones, it gives an estimate of the share of documents which may be missed because one was unavailable or forbidden.

When a document cannot be retrieved and content tests are given, it is never reported as a result, even if the -pessimistic option is not in effect. The rationale behind this is that the aim of the search is to locate content, so returning unavailable URLs is pointless. Pure link extraction without content tests may still return dead links.


In case of errors in options, wfind outputs the index of the offending command-line argument, starting with the first non-URL argument which has index 0. (The optional -- separator between URLs and tests does not count.) Besides the following options are useful to avoid misinterpretation of your command line:

To find out what document types and compressoins wfind supports and which Perl modules and external programs it uses, use the -status option:

    wfind -status -verbose

(Output is briefer without -verbose.)

If wfind does not do what you expect, you can run it with the -echo option to see how wfind interprets your command line:

    wfind ... -echo ...

Executing just wfind -echo without further arguments allows you to see the default settings.

Sometimes the MIME type of a given document can depend on the module or program used to determine it. To see what MIME type wfind assigns to a certain file, run the following command:

    wfind file -print mime -gdepth 0


Choosing the right search depth

The default global search depth (across all pipe sections) is 3, the default search depth per pipe section is 2. These numbers may seem small, but in most cases it is more sensible to reduce them than to raise them. Web pages tend to have tens of hyperlinks, so a depth of 3 puts thousands within reach. If all or most of them are within the same domain, wfind may run for hours due to its holdoff time, depending on how effective your -while tests are at pruning unwanted links.

The whole web is said to have a depth of only 15 to 20 hyperlinks, so a number in this order of magnitude is definitely too large a depth unless you are very restrictive about the URLs you admit. (These numbers are probably not quite correct, as that would imply that there are no more than 20 pages that are hyperlinked only serially on the whole web, which is unlikely. But they are a useful range to consider for unrestricted searches.)

The only situations where you should raise the default search depth is in searches of (local, HTTP or FTP) directories, where the search cannot run amok. For most web searches, a depth of 1 or 2 will probably suffice.

Searching by URL and the structure of websites

Unless you want to do a wholesale search of a complete site, you are going to have to tell wfind which links to follow. In order to create appropriate URL tests, do not just look at the links you want to follow, but also at those you want to ignore, to avoid leading wfind astray. Remember that the -samedomain option is active for non-search-engine start URLs by default. You have to deactivate it to follow links to other sites.

If you want to investigate series of documents (photo pages, comics, serialised web fiction etc.), be aware that their URLs may not be entirely consistent. Look at several before creating your URL test, and after running wfind sort the results and look for gaps. (Numbering lines with nl can be helpful for the latter.)

If you search through hyperlinks from downloaded web pages, remember to give the -unrestricted option to allow following these links. Be aware that relative links in downloaded documents can only be followed if you downloaded their targets too (unless the document base URL is given in a BASE tag).

Search criteria

A few brief remarks on search terms. When a search term is given as a simple word (not a regular expression or other test), wfind acts similarly as a search engine by reducing accented and other composed characters to their base character before comparison (see "Unicode" below for details). However, British and American spelling is still distinguished. Wildcards can be used to allow both spellings: ...i?e matches both ...ise and ...ize, and ...o* matches both ...or and ...our. Admittedly these search terms admit some erroneous matches, especially for shorter words.

Regarding Levenshtein (editing distance) tests, one should be aware that they are not for short words. The proportion of meaningful short words is so large that every tested document can be expected to contain one which matches a given Levenshtein test. (Puzzles which require transforming one word into another by editing moves attest to that.) It is less easy to say how long exactly a word has to be to count as short in this sense, but words up to four or five characters probably qualify. The usefulness of Levenshtein tests probably starts at double that, around ten characters.

Lastly, you should not use wildcard constructions in regular expression tests which potentially match text unlimited in length, such as .*. They may not do what you expect. wfind does not read documents in one go, but tries to match them bit by bit as they are parsed. This imposes a maximum length on char-based tests, which can be found in the variable $globals{"defneedchars"} in the source code (currently 500). Instead of .*, use two separate regular expression tests for the parts before and after it and combine them with the -and operator. There is a similar implicit restriction on the number of words available when applying word-based tests, $globals{"defneedwords"}.

Search engine result filtering

Filtering the output of search engines is probably the most difficult application of wfind, though it is also one of the most useful. In order to do that, run the search engine and paste the URL of the results page into wfind's command line. Before you run wfind, make sure the search engine does not ban spiders (Google does, for example).

The main difficulty in postprocessing general-purpose search engine results is that their result pages contain many links that are not search results. Most are links to ads, other searches and cached pages, all of which also contain the search terms. To exclude some of these (at least), it is helpful not to give all of your search terms to the search engine. (But because not all search engine results actually contain the search terms, you should repeat those passed to the search engine as arguments of wfind.) A -while test banning links to the domain of the search engine can eliminate suggestions for other searches, translations and the like.

Site searches and other special-purpose search engines can be less trouble than the general-purpose sort. Sometimes the result URLs habe the same form (e.g. articles from a newspaper or blog) and can be easily filtered. On the whole, there tends to be less clutter.


wfind creates a directory .wfind in the user's home directory. Subdirectories are created to cache the retrieved files of each run. Besides, configuration files can be located there, notably wfindrc. The wfindrc contains default options which are parsed before command-line options and can be overridden by them. The option names are the same as global or pipe section command-line options without the leading hyphen. Each line of the wfindrc can contain one option and its value. Boolean-valued options are switched on by their presence, but may also be followed by one of the values on, true, yes, 1, off, false, no or 0 (case insensitive). Comments are started with the # character and extend up to the end of the line.

Besides the wfindrc, the configuration directory may contain a subdirectory urlgroups. The files in this directory define a number of URL groups that can be used with the -urlgroup test. These files can contain URL prefixes, domain names or include directives. URL prefixes have to be absolute, i.e. start with a scheme such as http://. Any URL that starts with a prefix from the URL group or is in a subdomain of a domain from the URL group is taken to be part of that group. Trailing asterisks after URL prefixes are ignored. Include directives start with the word include followed by the name of another URL group. Comments in URL group files start with # and extend up to the end of the line. The special URL group blacklist defines URLs which wfind should ignore.

Even though the wfindrc file is read before the parsing of the command line, the command line is briefly scanned for the options -verbose and -silent and their negations, so that the parsing of wfindrc and the URL groups can be reported accordingly.


Through LWP, wfind supports HTTP and FTP proxies set by the environment variables http_proxy, ftp_proxy and no_proxy. Set these variables and export them using your shell to make wfind use a proxy.

Some servers allow users to authenticate themselves via parameters in the URL. You can use that method with wfind if you reverse-engineer the URL yourself. Be aware that the password will then be visible to others on your system via the ps program. With the same caveat, FTP logins can be put in the URL:

    wfind ftp://user:password@ftp.someserver.foo/...  ...

Authentication using challenges from the HTTP server or cookies, and reading passwords from the .netrc is not supported by wfind at this time.


Basic usage

Extract hyperlinks from a web page:

    wfind <URL> -nostart -depth 1

Extract all hyperlinks (including external ones) from a downloaded web page:

    wfind file.html -nostart -depth 1 -unrestricted

Find out which Perl manual pages have something to say about arrays:

    wfind /usr/share/man/man1/perl* =array

The = indicates a word test. It can be omitted, except when there is a file or subdirectory called "array" in the current directory, when it would be mistaken for a URL (file) argument. This ambiguity can also be avoided by separating tests from URLs with --. For the search above, is is not necessary to restrict the search depth: Because all the URLs are files and groff files contain no hyperlinks, the search depth is effectively zero.

Postprocess search engine results (from Clusty/Yippy), requiring documents on Karate to contain the Kanji characters for Karate-do:

    wfind http://search.yippy.com/search?query=karate -depth 1 '/\x{7A7A}\x{624B}\x{9053}/'

This should at least turn up the Wikipedia page. The command will run for a rather long time due to the comparably large number of links from the search results page to others in the yippy.com domain. See below for more advanced examples of search engine postprocessing.

Advanced usage

Find the URLs of the 25 latest Dilbert comic strips:

    wfind http://dilbert.com/strips/?Page=[1-5] -depth 1 -follow img.src -url '/strip(?:\.sunday)?\.gif$/'

Add the -download option to retrieve the images. The pages displaying recent comics are named systematically, with each page displaying five strips. The comic images themselves end on "strip.gif" or "strip.sunday.gif", unlike any other images on these pages. The -follow option restricts link traversal to image URLs embedded with an <img src=...> tags, and the regex URL test picks out the comic image URLs.

Assume you have a set of URLs some of which link to pages you consider interesting. The interesting hyperlinks all have "bar" in their link text, and you are sure only the initial pages containing "foo" link somewhere interesting (replace "foo" and "bar" by appropriate phrase). The following wfind command line finds the interesting pages for you:

    wfind <start URLs> -depth 0 foo \| -depth 1 -nostart -linktext bar

The command line has two pipe section, which allows the content test for "foo" to be imposed on the start URLs but not the link targets. The first pipe section does not follow links (-depth 0), it only discards the initial URLs not containing "foo". The second pipe section never returns initial URLs as results (-nostart), only the targets of links containing "bar" in the link text.

Note that the second pipe section follows hyperlinks to other domains. If you wanted to omit the test for "foo", you would have to give the -nosamedomain option to get equivalent results in the first pipe section:

    wfind <start URLs> -depth 1 -nostart -nosamedomain -linktext bar

The following command line extracts unique results from the search engine dogpile:

    wfind http://www.dogpile.com/dogpile/ws/results/... -nosta -depth 1 \
    -transform 's!^(?:.*/clickserver/.*rawURL=(.*?)\&.*|.*)$!uri_unescape($1 || "")!e;' \
    \| -depth 0 -nonosta -transform ""

Because dogpile uses a HTTP POST request to trigger searches, one cannot construct a start URL for the search results page. You have to perform the search in your browser (starting from http://www.dogpile.com/) and then copy the URL of search results into the comand line.

The first pipe section discards the initial URL (abbreviated -nostart) and extracts links (-depth 1). Dogpile does not provide direct links to the result pages, but instead redirects clicks through a URL on its own domain starting with http://www.dogpile.com/clickserver/. The -transform option extracts the result URLs (which are present in escaped form) and discards all links which do not go to the clickserver and are therefore not results.

The second pipe section serves to make the result URLs unique. The -nostart and -transform options, which would otherwise be inherited from the first pipe secion, are negated. The -download option could be added to retrieve and save the documents, or test options could be added to select some of them.


This section contains details about wfind's inner workings. It is intended as a last-but-one resort before reading the source code, and as a more precise specification of its behaviour than the previous parts of the documentation can give. If wfind works as you expect it to and you would not dream of programming something like wfind yourself, you may want to skip this. On the other hand, studying this section is indispensible if you want to understand wfind and use it to its full potential. Threspassers may be confused to the edge of sanity and be found semi-concious in a ditch with froth in front of their mouths several days later. You have been warned.

How wfind walks the web

wfind consists of a dispatcher process and several slave processes which download and test documents. The number of slaves is given by the -slaves option, and only when its value is zero, no slave processes are used, but the main process handles all URLs sequentially.

The main (dispatcher) process maintains a queue of URLs to look at. Whenever a slave process is idle, it looks for a job to assign to it. Depending on the -holdoff option, jobs can be postponed until the holdoff time for their server has expired (unless the URL was given on the command line or is considered part of a document by a frame or redirect). If the robots.txt file of its server forbids it, it is removed from the queue. Jobs for retrieving robots.txt files themselves are created as needed. If a URL is to be tested again (such as in a different pipe section) or if it does not require a retrieval (only URL tests), the holdoff test is skipped. If a job is ready, it is preferentially assigned to a slave which already has a connection to its server open.

A slave process waits for jobs sent by the dispatcher. It retrieves the document, performs the tests and extracts hyperlinks. Taking the results of -linktext and -while tests into account, jobs for testing hyperlinked URLs are created and passed back to the dispatcher. For ordinary hyperlinks, the remaining recursion depth is decreased by one. Frames, <layer> tags and <meta content=...> tags are treated as hyperlinks, but the depth is not decremented, and no holdoff period is imposed, reflecting the fact that these are part of the current document.

The dispatcher process receives the hyperlinked URLs from the slaves and adds them to the end of the job queue. If the link structure is a tree (which it rarely is), this results roughly in a breadth-first search. If a given URL has been tested before, the dispatcher finds it in the list of completed jobs and transfers its established data to its new job, notably the file name where its content is cached if it was already retrieved. If the tests of a completed job evaluated to true (or undefined unless -pessimistic is given), a job is moved to the next pipe section or output as a result.

Recursion over directories

Local directories are disqualified as search results. Subdirectories are searched recursively with the remaining search depth decremented (as for hyperlinks), while files are considered as results and have their pipe section depth set to 0, but their global depth unchanged from their directory. This has the effect that recursion from a directory is restricted to subdirectories within the pipe section, but can be continued to hyperlinks of matching documents in the following section.

FTP directories are handled as local directories, with recursion restricted to subdirectories within the pipe section. HTTP directory listings are a different matter, because there is no sure way to tell when one encounters them. If the -httpdirs option is set (which it is by default), wfind employs a heuristic to identify them. This can only be done after retrieval, but subdirectories are tentatively identified by ending in a slash, and the search depth is decremented only for them. Other than that, HTTP directory listing pages are parsed normally and may be search results passed on to the next section.

How wfind processes documents

wfind's slave processes perform tests in an order that allows to postpone retrieving the document, and possibly avoiding it altogether. First, URL tests are performed, and the logical test expression evaluated as far as possible. If the result depends on HTTP header tests, a HEAD request is sent, HTTP header tests are performed and the test expression evaluated again. If the result depends on content tests, or if the -while expression has evaluated to true, or if the test expression is true and -download is given, the document is retrieved.

After retrieval, the data format of the retrieved file is determined, it is decoded as applicable and possibly converted into a format that wfind can read. The resulting document is parsed, content tests are performed on the text and hyperlinks are extracted.

Elementary content tests are performed as text is parsed, and the positions of matches are noted. Periodically, the expression tree is evaluated, taking the proximity options into account. If the expression can be fully evaluated, parsing is aborted.

Encodings and document types

wfind can support a fair number of content encodings and data formats when the appropriate Perl modules or external programs are available. In order to avoid dependency hell, it does not require all of those modules and programs to be present. Rather, wfind detects their existence every time it runs, so additionally installed modules and programs are available immediately, without reinstalling wfind.

After retrieving a document (or after arriving at a specific local file), its data type is first determined by inspecting the first part of its contents. This is done by wfind itself, ignoring the HTTP Content-Type header, so as to be consistent between web documents and local files. If it is a type that wfind can read, the document is parsed; if the type is unknown, the file is ignored; if it is a compression or other encoding format, it is decompressed and the data type is determined again. Postscript is special in that it is treated like an encoding: it is converted to PDF which is then parsed.

The MIME types used for the -type and -rtype tests are independent of the data types for parsing. -type refers to the contents of the Content-Type HTTP header. It may therefore differ according to the server or even the directory on the same site if local server configuration files differ. For compressed documents, it may return the type of the compression (such as application/x-bzip2) or the type of the document (such as text/html).

The -rtype test uses the File::MimeInfo::Magic module or the file command depending on which is available. It always tests the decompressed file and is therefore independent of the encoding as well as the server, and also works on local files. However, its results may depend on whether File::MimeInfo::Magic or the file command is used, and possibly on their version.


Current versions of Perl support unicode, and so does wfind. The character encoding of a web page is obtained from the Content-Type HTTP header or the corresponding HTTP-Equiv meta HTML tag, if present. Otherwise, ISO-8859-1 is used as the default character encoding. The output of external parsing programs such as pdftotext and catdoc is read taking their character encoding into account.

Before performing word tests and regular expression tests without the v flag, the text is transformed to "base characters". Accents, cedillas and diaereses are removed, and ligatures such as the Scandinavian ae are transformed to two ASCII characters. Punctuation is treated similarly: The more than 5 kinds of unicode hyphens are transformed to ASCII, zero-width joiners and discretionary hyphens are removed, and glyphs resembling (single or multiple) punctuation signs are transformed to (single or multiple) ASCII characters.

These transformations make the simpler searches similarly tolerant as internet search engines. The search words (or regexes without the v flag) are also transformed, so they may contain non-ASCII characters. In order to accept command-line arguments in UTF-8 encoding, wfind specifies Perl's -C option in its interpreter command line (the first line in the script starting with #!). I have known this not to work on one installation; if you get an error message regarding this option, remove it and put the following line in your shell resource file (bashrc or equivalent):

    export PERL_UNICODE="SAL"

In addition, your locale has to specify a UTF-8 encoding, so Perl and your shell understand each other.

Robot rules

wfind observes the robot excusion standard. Since the standard is slightly open to interpretation, this section gives the details. If a server provides a file robots.txt in its root directory, it is retrieved and parsed before any hyperlinks are followed on that server. URLs disallowed for wfind (or whatever you have set as its user agent name) are not retrieved recursively. URLs that are explicitly allowed are still retrieved recursively, even if they also match disallowed paths, on the grounds that it would be pointless to list them as allowed otherwise.

The restrictions by robots.txt are not applied to URLs given on the command line. This reflects the fact that the robot exclusion standard is aimed at programs that traverse the web automatically (see http://www.robotstxt.org/) and follows the practice of other programs such as curl(1). Retrieving and testing documents explicitly named by the user does not (yet) make wfind a crawler.

By default, and if the -holdoff option has a negative argument, wfind uses the Crawl-delay entry of robots.txt (if present) as its holdoff time. This can actually speed things up: I have seen a fair number of servers that set a Crawl-delay of 0.

In order to treat different document types equally, wfind ignores the <meta name="robots" ...> HTML tag. Flags such as noindex and nofollow have no influence on results and recursion.

Logical functions under proximity requirements

For combining tests in expressions, wfind supports logical AND and OR operators as well as general logical operators requiring a minimum number of the subexpressions in the expression to be true (with the -require option). In addition, proximity requirements may be imposed using the -wordnear and -charnear options.

The common AND and OR operators are special cases of a -require operator, namely stipulating all or at least one subexpression. Therefore the following will be described in terms of -require operators, which covers everything. The proximity options impose the restriction that all required tests not only be true for a word in the document, but that these words lie in an interval of n+1 words or characters, where n is the argument of the proximity option. As a special case, a proximity condition of -wordnear 0 allows imposing several tests on the same word.

If one of the required tests is a subexpression, all of its tests' matches must also lie within the proximity interval of the superexpression, even if it has a proximity option of its own. The negation of an expression with proximity option is true if the required number of tests cannot be fulfilled or if their matches do not fit into the proximity interval.

If expressions with proximity options contain tests that do not apply to the document text, these (if true) contribute to the required tests but do not restrict the proximity interval. For example, an AND expression with proximity option containing one in-text test and one header test effectively has no proximity requirement, as the header test does not narrow the interval for the text match. If one such test is undecidable (such as a header test for a non-existing header), the overall expression may become undecidable, so that the presence of the -pessimistic option may decide about the outcome.


scav is a script interface to the wfind spider. This interface is still very experimental, and will undergo incompatible changes. The underlying mechanisms however form the basis of newer versions of wfind and are here to stay.

A scav script consists of one or several sections, which are equivalent to wfind pipe sections. A section is a processing unit that applies one or several actions to its input URLs. In scav scripts, a new section is started by a line containing only an optional label followed by an obligatory colon. This may be followed by a line or lines of start URLs (not only in the first section). The rest of the section consists of option and action lines. Option lines contain only options and always start with a minus sign. Action lines start with the name of an action and are usually followed by test expressions and possibly options. The following actions exist and accept the given options (in addition to -linktags, -pessimistic and -nostart accepted by all options with a test expression):

download test...

Download document to current directory if test is passed. Accepts options -decompress, -downxform and -maxresults.

feed section test...

Transfer URLs to a different section if the test evaluates to true. Allows the options -transform and -maxresults.

filter test...

Discard URLs not passing the test.

follow test...

Follow links in the current URL if test is passed. Tests are applied to the current URL (as for the other tests), not the link URLs. Internally this action causes the creation of an additional section which receives the link URLs as input. Accepts the options -follow, -symlinks, -unrestricted, -samedomain, -plainurls.

output test...

Print out the URL (same as wfind results). Options: -print and -maxresults.

recurse test...

Follow links and recurse to the previous section label. Accepts the options -follow, -symlinks, -unrestricted, -samedomain, -plainurls.

transform Perlcode test...

Transform current URLs. URLs that fail the tests or for which Perlcode returns the empty string or undef will be dropped. This is a shortcut for a feed action with a -transform option immediately followed by a new section.

wfind's pipe section options are almost all action-scoped options in scav scripts, except for -maxdepth, -asplain, -inline and -httpdirs. They can still be set in a section option line and will then be the default for all following actions. The option -download is not allowed any more as its task is performed by the download action. It is worth noting that the -depth option is not an action option of the recurse command, but a section option.

scav supports here documents. If a line contains a word of the form <<word (where word characters are letters, numbers or the underscore), this represents a single command-line word containing the following lines up to and excluding a line containing only the word. This helps writing complex Perl code for -transform, -downxform and -localfile. Multiple here documents in a line are allowed and must follow in the order in which they are referenced. A here document may be referenced multiple times, which is useful for -downxform in conjunction with -localfile.

The script file name on the scav command line is followed by URL arguments, an optional double hyphen and general-purpose arguments. These arguments are accessible in the script. URL arguments are referred to by @0, @1 and so on and may be used on start URL lines, but may not be mixed with explicit URLs. @2@ can be used to denote all URL arguments starting from the third, and @@ is the same as @0@ (all URL arguments). General-purpose arguments are denoted by $0, $1 and so on, or %0, %1 to have them URL encoded for creating GET form submissions. $2@, %1@ and similar constructs denote all general arguments starting from the one implied.

URLs and arguments of options and tests may contain spaces if they (or part of them) are quoted by single or double quotes. General-purpose arguments are not interpolated inside single quotes. There is no backslash escaping of delimiting quotes; you have to close the quoted substring and enclose the quote character in the other type of quotes.

The global options -silent, -verbose, -echo, -version and -status have to precede the script file name on the scav command line. -echo displays the internal representation of the script's sections and actions and their options. In order to see a wfind command in the same representation, use the option -scavecho.


find(1), grep(1), bool(1), curl(1), wget(1), perlre(1)


wfind is (c) 2008-2014 Volker Schatz. It is free software and may be copied and/or modified according to the Gnu General Public Licence version 3 or later (see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html).

TOS / Impressum